Received Dr. re. nat. from the University of Leipzig - Germany. In Clinical Psychology and B.A. in Psychology from the University of Damascus in 1983 His research interests are : Psychological Disorders, Psychological Diagnostic< Mental Health and Health Psychology. Counseling and Psychotherapy, Psychological first Aid –Crises, Stress Intervention and Psychological Traumas.
Dr. rerum naturalium in Psychology, Leipzig-Germany, 1989
Bachelor (licentiate ) in Psychology, Damascus University, 1983
Application in Counseling, 2014-Until now
Behavior Modifacation, Modification of behavior based on the theory of learning and traditional behavioral theory, 2017 Fall
Methods, Foundations of scientific research in psychology. Focuses particularly on descriptive, experimental and qualitative approaches. And the steps of preparing the thesis., 2017-2018 Until now
Developmental Psychology & Mental Health, The course deals with human development, the factors affecting it, the stages of development and the characteristics and characteristics of each age stage (early childhood - late childhood - adolescence - etc.). It also deals with issues of mental health in childhood: the concept of mental health, normal and abnormal behavior, the development of self-confidence in the child, self-efficacy and the normal psychological development of the child. It deals with some childhood problems and disorders, such as aggression and school problems, and focuses on the positive aspects of mental health development, 2020-Until now
School counseling and guidance, This course deals with the definition and development of school counseling, its philosophy, foundations, objectives, justifications, and fields. As well as the role of the mentor, his functions, qualities, ethics, competence, and skills. It also addresses the indicative process, its stages, procedures, and how to manage it. And the means of collecting information about the client and methods of diagnosing his problems. It also focuses on training on some guiding applications for overcoming some psychological and behavioral problems., 2022
Mental Health, Until now
Special Needs Counseling , 2013-2014
Seminar in Counseling , 2013-2015
Group Counseling , 2018-2019 Until now
School counseling, ٍSummer2013-2014
Introduction in Special Education , 20015-2016
ِAbnormal Psychology, 2008-2013
Messurment & Evaluation , 2000-2008
Education Psychology, The course deals with the learning theories and their educational applications, as well as the nature of educational psychology, its theoretical and applied fields, its relationship with other disciplines of psychology, the importance of its studies for students and teachers, educational goals and its dimensions. Problems applied., Fall 2020, Fall 2021
Research Methods & Statistic , 2003-2004
Developmental Psychology & Mental Health , 2000-2008
learning Difficulties & Special Needs Persons , 2002-2004
Educational Evaluation , 2003-2004
Adjustment & Learning Problems , 1996-2000
psychological Problems & Counseling , 1990-2000
Mental health, , 1990-2000
- Research Interests
Crisis Intervention (PTSD)
- Conference Presentations
Attitudes of the doctors of Damascus city towards psychological service issues, Psychological service and development, Damascus, 19/5/1998
Psychosoziale Protective Faktoren bei alten Menschen in Syrien (Psycho-social protective Factors by Old People in Syria), VI. European Congress of Health Psychology , Germany, 23/8/1992
Blended Learning Programs Project, Forum digitization of scientific research. University of Leipzig-Germany, Leipzig-Germany, 2019
Issues in training students in psychological counseling, The third international conference for the Department of Education and Humanities, Nizwa University, 2014
Psychological counseling and obstacles to activating it in some Arab universities, The first psychological counseling and guidance seminar: Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 2005
Prevalence of substance abuse, Psychology and Development Conference, Kuwait, 1999
- Conference Attendance
he Fourth International Conference of the Department of Education, Nizwa University, 2016
1. 2022 How can talking heal? On language in psychotherapy., Psychotherapy has traditionally been viewed as a `talking cure`, that is, a healing method that works primarily through language. However, it is unclear what this attribution actually means, to the extent that the therapeutic effect of language has been explained in various ways. Against this background, this study reconstructs the central approaches that define “speech therapy” in terms of (1) catharsis, (2) coding, (3) metaphors, (4) verbal interventions, and (5) narrative descriptions and discussion in terms of psychotherapy research findings. . The result is a complex picture of disparate theoretical inputs that converge on the basic premise of seeing the therapeutic potential of language in its ability to explain or modify pathological formations of maladaptive experience and coexistence. The empirical evidence for these approaches is heterogeneous: most types of verbal activity show unclear associations with treatment success. Relationships with process variables are more consistent, as specific processes can be evoked by different verbal activities (eg comprehension through transfer explanations, self-disclosure, metaphors or narration). It has also been shown that the effects of verbal activity are potentially negative. These results generally point to an integrative view of language in the sense of a set of language-induced processes related to change, whose beneficial effects must be viewed in the context of a comprehensive relationship and subject to complex random conditions, which is one of the most important requirements of psychotherapy research to be accurate and systematic.
2. 2021 A Comparison of COVID-19-related Post-traumatic Stress, Self-efficacy, and Mental Health in Three Arab Countries, In this study, we assessed differences in mental health, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and self-efficacy in three Arab countries: Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Oman. We also explored the effect of COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms and self-efficacy on mental health. An online survey was conducted with 2,162 respondents (1,186 women and 976 men), of whom 984 were Syrian, 732 were Saudi, and 446 were Omani. We developed two tools to measure the psychological aspects of self-efficacy and PTSD as they relate to COVID-19 and assessed participants’ mental health status. Significant differences were found among the three groups, with Syrians showing the lowest scores on mental health and self-efficacy and the highest on PTSD symptoms. Multiple regression analysis showed that COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms of hyperarousal, avoidance/numbness, and self-efficacy were good predictors of some mental health aspects. While most previous studies on COVID-19 have examined only its negative psychological effects, the current study focused on the positive aspects such as well-being and self-efficacy. This study emphasizes the importance of psychological factors associated with the pandemic, in addition to deriving new research questions and hypotheses. We compared relatively large samples from 3 different countries. It is important to gather comparative data on the psychological aspects of COVID-19 to plan specific psychological preventive programs for promoting mental health and reducing the negative psychological effects of the pandemic.
3. 2021 The Safety-Oriented Personality Style or Phobicentric Psychopathology: A Cross-National Replication Study, Our replication study embarked on in the Middle East, used an Arabic translation of the original research tool, the Safety-Oriented Personality Style or Phobicentric Psychopathology Individual Questionnaire (SOPS/PCPIQ) that was employed in the North American study, which could identify adults with more serious chronic anxiety. SOPS/PCP, described as dimensional and neurobiologically-based is the hypothesized construct from which SOPS/PCPIQ is derived. SOPS/PCP, a brand-new formulation, arose serendipitously from clinical observations and followed in the new tradition of attempting to avoid characterizing personality disorder in the categorical and non-theoretical style of the previously influential Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The present study is intended to produce results that confirm that SOPS/PCP may be experienced outside North America. The results supported the hypotheses that the Arabic version of the SOPS/PCPIQ would demonstrate adequate reliability and validity. They further showed that individuals with a history of trauma exposure scored significantly higher than the other subjects. As such, the similar results from this Arabic study to those from Canada and the United States showed that this cross-national study successfully replicated the original North American findings. Discussion addresses the potential role of this study’s psychopathology to provide meaningful contribution to the recognition and reduction of global anxiety disorder and help change the current direction of personality disorder research
4. 2021 Differences between the children of foster families and children of original families in the response to the Children`s Apperception Test , The study aimed to compare the differences in the response on the (C.A.T) of children in foster families and peers in normal families. This can help to improve the understanding of these children, develop prevention, and take corrective action. The study used a descriptive-clinical approach. For comparison, two samples were used (10 children from foster families and 10 children from normal families). It was found that most of the images had no diagnostic value to discriminate between both samples so that there were no more than four of the fourteen points in the two samples in which differences were found. The differences centered on the perception of the environment -the image was engulfed by aggressive, unstable and contradictory environments. Also, the mother`s image was perceived as angry, worried. The conflict with the family in the sample of foster families was repeated several times, their non-adaptation was linked to the occurrence of statistically significant differences between the two samples in the conclusion of the stories. These conclusions were unhappy, unrealistic and abnormal perceived in the samples of foster male children. The differences in the girl`s sample were more significant than in boys. The differences in the girls` sample focused on the environment. The image of the mother in this group was perceived as angry, timid, contradictory. Moreover, she was completely ignored in some answers. The father`s cruel and dominant image also appeared in a series of responses. Keywords: Projection; projective Tests; CAT; Foster families; psychological Diagnostic.
5. 2021 Erik Erikson - Consultant and Supervisor, To this day, Erik H. Erikson is considered one of the most brilliant and creative representatives of psychoanalysis after the Second World War. This essay shows how fruitfully his developmental and clinical concepts can be applied in the increasingly diverse field of psychological counseling and supervision. The first section discusses Erikson`s eight phases of life as basic themes, basic conflicts of human existence which, in varying degrees and intensities, determine all helping and healing dealings with people. In the second and third sections, the ``Life Cycle`` diagram is discussed as a theoretical guide which, given the wealth of information, impressions and hypotheses, helps the counselor and supervisor with diagnosis, prognosis and intervention.
6. 2020 Psychology in the face of the impact of the COVID 19 virus crisis on mental health, The COVID-19 crisis had many health, psychological, social and economic effects. The medical, social and psychological authorities in all countries were also exhausted. Many efforts and energies were mobilized during the crisis. The psychological services had to adapt quickly in order to be able to react to the psychological problems and stresses that arose. In addition, there was insufficient psychological experience to cope with the pandemic. As a result, Internet platforms have been opened to researchers to share information, and extensive psychological examinations have been requested, and numerous interpretations of population responses to the emergency have been presented, focusing on anxiety, loss of control, cognitive bias, and attribution patterns. The course is still in its infancy and has not yet fulfilled all of its potential
7. 2019 Is ``Evidence-Based`` Off Base?, The evidence-based crew tend to hail from the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) camp, a relatively new(er) field embraced by insurance companies because they produce a quick reduction of symptoms, requiring fewer sessions. The detractors are from the older guard, the ``talk therapy`` (a term I`ll use here, but all psychotherapy requires talking) purists who use titles like psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, humanistic, and existentialist to describe their methods. They believe therapy is more complex than a series of techniques to minimize symptoms, it is a relationship that heals because the relationship itself provides the corrective emotional experience to allow for growth and change.
8. 2019 the crisis stressed human , The subject seeks to answer a very complex question: Why has Arab society collapsed into a cycle of violence that has destroyed the very basis of its existence and why it is difficult to create a homogeneous social unity based on a non-violent, productive and effective social and humanitarian contract.? The subject is followed by a deep psycho-social approach, sometimes based on ego-psychological and other approaches, despite many reservations about very complex situations. It is an attempt to shed light on an aspect that does not claim absolute correctness because it is a psycho - educational - social problem. We talk about the ``stunted`` and ``shocked`` people and all the ``stunted`` and ``shocked`` communities that have fallen into trouble and are unable to get out of it.
9. 2019 PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN SOME ARAB SOCIETIES, The present study examined the perceptions and attitudes of some samples from three Arab countries in terms of psychotherapy and mental disorders. The sample consisted of 813 (366 male and 447 female) respondents from Syria, Oman and Saudi Arabia. Respondents completed an electronic questionnaire developed by the researchers to assess their perceptions and attitudes towards psychotherapy and mental disorders. The results showed that respondents from different sources had information about mental disorders, especially from books and magazines. It was also found that they had a relatively good idea about psychotherapy overall. Their attitudes have been positive, but there have been some misconceptions and stereotypes about some aspects of psychotherapy, mental disorders and their causes. These misunderstandings and stereotypes should be removed to promote awareness of psychotherapy and its potentialities, as well as general mental health problems in Arab countries.
10. 2018 Psychological Resilience among Omani and Non-Omani Students at Sultan Qaboos University and other Private Colleges and Universities in Oman, The study aimed at identifying the level of psychological resilience of a sample of Omani and nonOmani students in the Sultanate of Oman. A sample of 777 Oman and non-Omani students participated in the study. The researchers used the comparative correlative descriptive method to analyze the data obtained from the sample, which is representative of the original society. The results showed that the respondents had a high degree of psychological resilience in all dimensions except emotional regulation where the score was in the medium range. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in the degree of psychological resilience due to the gender, nationality, or university variables among the sample
12. 2018 البرمجة اللغوية العصبية: خدعة نفسية أم طريقة مفيدة , النجاح في المهنة ومع الجنس الآخر و السلوك الواثق بالنفس والمساعدة السريعة ضد المخاوف- كل هذا تعد به التقنية النفسية للبرمجة اللغوية العصبية - linguistic-Neuro programming التي يرمز لها اختصاراً (NLP (والتي تحظى في دورات الادارة وسيمينارات الخبرة الذاتية بقوة جاذبية خاصة. غير ان فاعلية تقنياتها المتفننة لم يتم اختبارها، ووعود الدعاية المتعاظمة في كتبها والإعلانات عن ابجدية الطريقة توحي بسحر نفسي لمدرسة الادارة . يتم تمجيد البرمجة اللغوية العصبية (NLP (والتي يتسابق عليها الناس في سيمينارات الادارة ودورات الخبرة الذاتية، باعتبارها وصفة عجيبة سريعة جداً ضد الحصارات النفسية من كل نوع، وبالفعل ففي مخزون الـ (NLP (تقنيات منفردة معدة بفاعلية، تخشاها في الاثناء المعالجات الاخرى. أما الوجه الآخر: فهو أن البرمجة اللغوية العصبية (NLP (عبارة عن معالجة ضيقة مسوقة بشكل محترف بدون تشخيص وبدون مناقشة كافية للمقاومات ولحدود التلاعب
13. 2018 الطلاق ومابعده, تكون مرحلة ما بعد الطلاق من المراحل الصعبة والتي قد تطول آثارها السلبية لفترة زمنية طويلة. إذ يستمر شعور كثير من المطلقين بالألم وندب الذات والحيرة والشك والقلق ومشاعر الذنب أو الندم. فانتهاء العلاقة الزوجية بالطلاق يولد الشعور بالفشل والمعاناة من الاكتئاب والتقلبات الوخيمة في المزاج والشعور بالوحدة والعزلة والاستبعاد والضياع والحيرة وعدم الأمان. وغالباً ما تقود الحالة الانفعالية إلى اضطرابات في التركيز والتعب المستمر والتوتر والإنهاك وتراجع القدرة على الإنجاز والاضطرابات النفسية الجسدية أو سوء استخدام العقاقير.
14. 2018 Anger and hate: detrimental emotionsأ, One lives a life full of feelings, caused by a mixture of different and contradictory emotions and desires, such as joy and sadness, love and hatred, anger and anger, hatred and revenge, envy and jealousy, etc. And what is useful in building personal and social life. Understanding these feelings helps to a large extent to control and deal with different life situations, but when we can not understand those feelings and how to deal with them, the consequences may be dire.
15. 2018 Test Anxiety , Exam anxiety is one of the most common types of anxiety. There are a number of ways and strategies that can be dealt with.
16. 2018 Daydreaming: A new source of psychic energy reconsidered , Daydreams received sufficient scientific attention for a long time, and were until recently considered an escape from reality, a compensation for unsatisfied desires, and evidence of the inadequacy of this reality and escape from it. And considered the right man is the one who stands on the ground, facing him and does not need day dreams to escape it. To this day, we still read or hear here and there who claims that daydreaming is a sign of not being both and escaping reality, knowing that we all dream of daydreaming in one way or another
17. 2018 EMDR-Deception for Advanced , تعد الأساليب الفعالة لعلاج الصدمات موضوع يحظى بأهمية متزايدة. ويمكننا في الوقت الراهن العثور بسرعة على ما تبحث عنه على الإنترنت، ولهذا فقد أثارت طريقة خفض الحساسية بحركات العين وإعادة المعالجة Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing والتي يرمز لها اختصاراً EMDR باهتمام المؤلفة، نظراً لتعدد التقارير التي تشير إلى أنه ``علاج سريع وفعال للصدمات``، بالإضافة إلى أنهه يخفف الكثير من الشكاوى الأخرى بسرعة وفعالية وفقاً لجمعية EMDRIA. وفي المكتبات نجد سلسلة من الناصحين لطريقة EMDR للبالغين والأطفال وحتى الرضع بعناوين مثيرة مثل ``علاج EMDR لعلاج اضطرابات الأكل واضطرابات الارتباط والحساسية والألم والقلق وطنين الأذن والإدمان``، إلا أن اهتمام المؤلفة تمحور أكثر حول ``EMDR بالنسبة لاضطرابات ``التفكك المعقدة``؛ فدفعها الفضول للاهتمام بتطور الطريقة ونتائج الدراسات حولها، ووجدت المزيد من التناقضات. فكان أن تم طرح السؤال الآتي: هل EMDR طريقة مفيدة للعلاج النفسي حقاً، أم أنها نموذج عمل ذكي اكتشف مريض الصدمة كفجوة مربحة في السوق؟ في النهاية، تترك المؤلفة هذا القرار للجميع، ويمكن للنقاد والمؤيدين أن يوافقوا على الأقل على أن أسلوب EMDR طريقة غير مبررة تعد بالكثير، الأمر الذي يترك مجالاً واسعاً للمناقشات المثيرة.
18. 2018 The Relationship between Resilience & Mental Health among a Sample of Nizwa University Students - Sultanate of Oman, This study aims to investigate the relationship between resilience and mental health in the light of some variables by a sample of higher education students at Nizwa University. The sample consisted of 1000 students, 403 of them were males and the other 597 were females. The researchers used Resilience Scale (Conner & Davidson, 2003) and Health Scale (Abdel-Khalek, 2011). The results showed significant relations among the studied variables in general, and significant differences between resilience and mental health based on gender variable in favor of females
19. 2014 The roles of education supervisors are required in the training of female teachers during the practice of practical training, investigating the roles performed by practicum advisors (teaching staff members and cooperating and school teachers) in guiding and enabling female student teachers acquire basic skills targeted in the 16-credit hour practicum program The study aims at investigating the roles performed by practicum advisors (teaching staff members and cooperating and school teachers) in guiding and seminars and workshops related to the practicum program. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 133 female student-teachers at the College of Applied Sciences- Ibri. Means, standard deviations, t-values and Kai-square were used as statistical tools to analyzer the data. Results of analysis revealed a number of results, the most important of which is that a statistically significant variation exists between the enabling female student teachers acquire basic skills targeted in the 16-credit hour practicum program. To achieve this aim the researchers prepared a questionnaire that included the most significant basic skills by analyzing the main draft issued by the Ministry of Higher Education, reviewing the most important studies two medians of the sample responses with regard to their practice of the basic skills as dictated by the College supervisors and cooperating school teachers. This variation is in favor of the College supervisors. Results also reveal some drawbacks in the performance of cooperating school teachers with regard and researches relevant to this work, and to their practice of the practicum basic accounting for the recommendations of skills
20. 2011 The Effect of Self Efficiency of The Anxiety. Psychological Studies- Algerian. (2011in Arabic), The study is directed to discover the relation between the Self-Competency and Anxiety in one hand, and the effects of Self-Competency in updating (changing) the level of anxiety in other hand. The Self-Competency Scale of (Schwarzer & Jerusalem ,1989) and Kuwait anxiety scale (Abdel-khalek, KUAS 2000) are applied to 212 students (female and male) of Faculty of applied Science in Abri- Oman. When it comes to the differences of anxiety and Self-Competency between female students and male students , the results pointed out that there are significant differences in degree of anxiety between males and females. The males were more anxious and less self-competency estimating than females. The variance analysis highlighted that the level of anxiety decreases when the self- competency increases. Moreover , it also highlighted the existence of significant differences in the level of anxiety between the low and middle self- competency group, and the middle and high group. Finally, the linear regression analysis showed the effect of the self- competency in decreasing the level of anxiety. Moreover, it showed that the self-competency has a considerable participation in predicting of the level of anxiety.
21. 2009 3. The German Version of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale-Revised. , A German translation of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, written originally in Arabic, was prepared. A sample of 207 men and women German college students was recruited. Coefficient alpha was .88, whereas the item-remainder correlations ranged from .21 to .63, denoting good internal consistency. The correlation of the scale with the German form of the Trait Anxiety Scale was .76, indicating high criterion-related validity. Three factors were identified: General, Somatic, and Cognitive/Affective Anxiety. German students scored lower (less anxious) than students from the U.S. and 18 Arab countries. The sex difference was not significant for the German sample.
22. 2003 Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) , Standardizing measuring instruments availability in the local environment and other communities permits accurate diagnosis for psychological disorders, and the carrying out of survey studies and cross cultural comparisons particularly in connection with one or more of the most widespread forms of psychological disorders namely depression. This study aims at standardizing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is considered on of the most widespread and used measuring instruments of the world. The sample contained (1134) examinees taken from the students of Damascus University. The researcher used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which was adapted to the Arabic language by Ahmad Abdul Khalek. And was contained in the Manual guide in the form of instructions in (1996). The statistical analysis contained the test of reliability of Beck Depressions Inventory through its re-test analysis, nonstructural validity, and internal consistency analysis. The results stewed that Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) had good validity and reliability and correlated with number of variables, such as: Neuroticism, Introversion, Helplessness, and Social Anxiety, together with some clinical symptoms and obsession and it is negatively correlated with Extraversion. Items were subjected to Factor Analysis, which led to the deducing of (4) factors the Eigen Value of which was more than one. All Items had been loaded which meant the presence of good qualities of the list. The study didn’t indicate the presence of any significant differences between age groups with the exception of two male age groups. Standard degrees were calculated in the form of T-Scores. In general the results indicate the relevance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for diagnostically and research purposes in the Syrian Society.
23. 2002 Obsession and Compulsion A Study on Syrian Sample, The Arabic Obsession-Compulsion Scale was administered to 934 male and female Syrian undergraduates. Their ages ranged from 17 to 27 year. Cronbach`s alpha reached 0.73, while criterion-related validity ranged between 0.58 and 0.60. The Factor analysis of the intercorrelations between the scale Items, i.e. 32X32, yielded 9 factors, accounted for 47.2% of the variance and obliquely rotated by oblimin. The names of these factors are: generic obsession and compulsion, cleanliness and discipline, obsessive doubts, slowness, checking, lack of obsession and compulsion, interest in details, repetition, and orderliness. Females attained significantly higher total score than their male counterparts. Syrians attained almost the same mean scores as Egyptians, while thy have higher mean scores than Lebanese, Saudi, Quatari, and American undergraduates.
24. 2001 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ)-Syrian Version, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ) is considered to be one of the most widely spread psychological measures all over the world, and it’s one of the most widely used tools of measurement of the main personality’s dimensions such as: Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychotism. Inspite of what has been mentioned above EPQ is not standardized to Syrian case . This Study aims at checking up psychometric efficiency of the EPQ within the Syrian Case, and the criteria that characterize the Syrian case. In this study the translated in to Arabic variant of the EPQ, which prepared by Ahmad Abdel-Khalek, and consisted of 101 Items, which can be answered by “Yes” or “NO” Some of those Items were changed to accommodate the Syrian case. The study’s sample included 800 Students of both sexes in different faculties of Damascus University,(425 females, 375 ,ales of age between 18-27 years). The Items were submitted to Factor analyses. Due to this type of analysis (68) Items were finally accepted to be used and applied to 3 main personality’s 3 dimensions, and to lying Test in addition. The consistency coefficients of the four measurement were different. I.e. they were acceptable to Extraversion, Neuroticism and Lying measurement, while they were not so as for Psychotism. The sub-measurements were correlated with each other in different degrees, and with age and sex variables. Differences were remarked between sexes in sub-measurements such as, Psychotism and Neuroticism, while there were no differences between sexes in Extraversion.
25. 2001 Social Anxiety “An Empirical Study of a Syrian Sample”, The last two decades witnessed a noticeable increase in research on social anxiety as a result of the increasing emergence of this phenomenon. The main feature of social anxiety includes chronic anxiety in various situation where the person feels that he is the target of people’s looks and the fear of doing any thing that can be shameful or the cause of a scandal the symptoms of social anxiety are displayed in front of an audience and as a result of the fear of people’s observation as are carries out certain activities. This study aims at designing a measuring scale for social anxiety and examining the factorial structure and testing the validity and reliability of this scale. The sample consisted of 437 students both males and females from Damascus University. In preparing the measuring scale 2 German scales that measure social anxiety have been used, from which Items that contained the behavioral, emotional and the cognitive components of social anxiety, have been selected for inclusion in one scale. We also formulated Items formulated according to the clinical description of the typical clinical image of social anxiety. Factorial analysis lead to the recognition of five factors, the eigenvalue of which was more then \1\. The Scale contained 29 Items with 0.40 loading; high reliability and validity coefficients . Overall, the scale has good psychometric characteristic and a potentially good instrument for diagnosing and screening social Anxiety states in Arab countries.
26. 2001 Depression and Pessimism An Correlative-Comparative Study, This study aims at pointing out the relationship between Depression and Pessimism on one hand, and their relations with some psychological variables through their relation with sex and age variables, together with the differences between the two sexes and other age categories as for Depression and Pessimism on a Syrian sample on the other hand. In addition to the above mentioned, it aims at pointing out the percentage of diffusion. The sample consisted of (1134) student of both sexes in Damascus University, and of (522) students of both sexes in Damascus secondary schools. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which was standardized and into Arabic by Ahmad Abdel-Khalek was used in this study. Pessimism Scale, which was prepared by Badr Al-Ansari, was also used. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Depression and Pessimism and between sex and Depression while sex didn’t related with Pessimism. Age did related either with Depression or Pessimism. There were significant differences between sexes in some Items of Beck Depression Inventory and Pessimism Scale. Difference between University and Secondary Schools as for Depression and Pessimism were shown.
27. 2001 Health Behavior and attitudes towards health A comparative Study between Syrian and German Students., Health behaviour and health opinions of students will be analysed under a cross-cultural perspective in order to find out intercultural based differences between a Syrian and a German sample. In this study the “Health Behaviour Survey” was used, a health behaviour and health belief questionnaire from Steptoe (1991). The study sample included 300 students, 201 females (67%) and 99 males (33%). The statistical analysis used was descriptive and inference statistics. The inference statistics included the difference test between the averages of males and females using T-test. “Chi2 test” was used to calculated the binding and differences between behaviours and attitudes. The study showed the existence of some special properties of the Syrian sample, some are healthy like eating fruits, having enough hours of sleep, teeth care, other are unhealthy like the absence of periodical visits to the doctor and breast self examination.
28. 2001 The Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity in Syrian College Students , Kuwaiti (n = 460) and American (n = 273) college students responded to the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale in Arabic and English languages, respectively. Coefficients alpha were .93 and .95, while the item-remainder correlations ranged from .37 to .75 and from .33 to .81 for the Kuwaiti and American samples, respectively. Three factors were identified for the Kuwaiti sample: (1) Cognitive/Affective, (2) Somatic, and (3) Behavioral/Subjective Anxiety and two factors for the American sample: (1) Cognitive/Affective/Behavioral and (2) Somatic Anxiety. The Kuwaiti sample had significantly higher mean scores on 13 of the 20 items and on the total scale score than the American sample. Sex differences were significant in both countries. By and large, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale seems viable in the American and Kuwaiti contexts.
29. 2000 The Syrian Symptom Check List, With the prevalence of psycho- and psychosomatically symptoms, doctors and Psychotherapists in their fields of specialization need valid and easily aphid means of diagnosing the extent of symptoms and their increase or decrease in the field of psychotherapy. This study goal at preparing a questionnaire to define complaints and symptoms suffer by Patients who suffer psychological troubles in view of the suffer importance of this definition in both medical and psychological diagnoses. This would enable the diagnosing physician to form a preliminary image that would allow the choice of the treatment method, its direction and effectiveness of treatment used. The total sample population contained 950 members consisting of male and female students at Damascus University, employers and various psychological complaint sufferers. The researcher in his designing of the questionnaire made use of international references available and selected the most wide-spread symptoms, thus the questionnaire contained 53 Items. The Items were subjected to Factor analysis, which led to the deducing of 12 Factors with Eigenvalue more than (1). These Items contain and reflect acceptable reliability coefficient factors for the scale, and delimit the spread span of Symptoms within the sample studied and produces preliminary ratios for them.
31. 1999 Defense Mecanism, Psychological defense mechanisms are an unconscious psychological mechanism used by the individual to weaken the anxiety caused by internal conflicts between instinctual and moral and social laws. It is a psychoanalytic concept that is used to describe relatively static psychological structures, and the individual defensive unconscious defenses, which transform the ego by helping to protect itself from psychological conflicts, which can arise from the divergence between the desires of the ego and the demands of the higher ego, or even the demands of the ego itself. Is part of the psychological system that aims to identify the energy of the drivers of the threat and the concern. They play a role in personal equilibrium. They can turn into satisfactory and crippling mechanisms when they become the dominant form of defense.
33. 1999 Prevalence of dependence producing drugs among Intermediate and secondary school students in Damascus, This study aims at delimiting the extent of the prevalence of dependence producing drugs among adolescents in a sample of intermediate and secondary schools students in Damascus. The Study sample represents an important population group prone, due to its growth-age stage to the temptation of trying to experience substances harmful to health which makes it, more than other age groups prone to the dangers of a diction and other social and health delinquencies. The importance of this study comes from the fact that it does not deal with cases of actual a diction, but with cases that might have experienced one dependence producing drugs which raises the risk of dependence liability. It addresses as social and psychological issue vital to society and the factors of its stability needing to be attended to on all levels. Methodical Basis of the study stems from a study of spread which is considered the basis on which all forms of prevention and intervention are based the planning and implementation of primary prevention programs and the prevention or the decreasing ratio of the prevalence of a certain phenomena such as risky health behavior which can lead to a diction or health hazards for example cannot be carried out without clues on the extent of the prevalence of the phenomena and a population sectors in which it prevails and its relation to social conditions. The sample contains 950 students of both sexes. Important results have been arrived at as to the prevalence of a diction behavior patterns. This points, in spit of it low percentage, to the necessity of preparing counseling and educational programs for prevention and insuring that certain forms of transient behavior do not develop in to permanent forms.
35. 1997 psychological Disorders , In the course of his life, man is exposed to many crises and difficult times that result from the nature of life itself. It is an exhibition of natural disasters, wars and social, family and professional problems that may cause psychological exhaustion and sometimes have transient and severe effects. Because of the adaptive capacities of man, he is often able to overcome crises and overcome them after a period of time that lengthens or shortens. It is equipped with a self-immune system, similar to the work of the physical immune system, acquired during the development stage, helping him to overcome the problems that face him. The primary means of defense and other sensory mechanisms are within this apparatus.
37. 1996 Dream: From past to present Between the legend of Gilgamesh To transparent dreams, No two people differ from the reality of the dream, yet the possibility of dealing with this fact varies by individual. It is noted that so far dealing with the subject of dreams in many aspects refers to the type of lack of understanding and interpretation.
Conference or Workshop:
1. 2018 The Irrational Ideas among tenth Grade Students in Muscat Governorate, The study consisted of (300) students, 163 students and 137 students, who were randomly selected from the schools of the states. Governorate of Muscat, and was the instrument of study in the scale of irrational ideas. The results of the study showed that the level of irrational ideas among the tenth grade students in Muscat governorate was medium, and that there were no statistically significant differences according to the gender variable. The results also showed statistically significant differences due to the variable nature of the region in the following dimensions: , Request for approval, non-liability) in favor of near-service areas.
2. 2018 The Relationship between the Professional Competence and Self-Efficacy of Social and Psychological Specialists in Al Batinah South Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, The study is designed to identify The Relationship between the Professional Competence and Self-Efficacy of Social and Psychological Specialists in Al Batinah South Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. The researcher have used descriptive method. The study`s sample consists of (150) social and psychological specialists working in schools affiliated to the General Directorate of Education, the researcher used three tools which are: the Professional Competence measure and the self-efficacy measure. The results of the study showed that the degree of professional competence of the social and psychological specialists in South Batinah governorate was significant, while the degree of self-efficacy was moderate. The results also showed positive correlation between the four measures and the self-efficacy measure. It is also possible to predict the professional competence of psychologists and psychologists through self-efficacy.
3. 2014 Issues in the education and training of psychological counseling students, This paper is based on a review available in the scientific literature of the ethical charters of a group of associations providing psychological services. In addition to the special experiences of the teachers in their administrative work (preparation and supervision of programs) and teaching psychological guidance within the universities (Oman, Syria, Poland). As well as the experiences of the first researcher from the administrative position through the knowledge of some of the experiences and contact with the students of the Masters in guidance and the implementation of the extension programs, and the second and third researchers of their work in the associations and institutions and bodies that have specialists in psychological counseling.
2010-Present: PSS MH Advisory Board (PSS MH Capacity Building Project in Syria.
2009-Present: Editorial board: Journal of Community and Environmental Studies ( JCES
2004-Present: 13. consultative Membership in http://almostschar.com (Center for Family development)
2000-2014: Arab Psychological Network (APN)
1996-2000: Syrian Association of Psychology
1994-2009: Interdisciplinary Psychology
1994-2009: Center of Psychological and Psychosomatical Studies
Winning the title of founders in psychology and psychiatry for the year 2021. The Arab Foundation for Psychological Sciencesز